The C40 commissions Arup to co-author this report as the first-ever comprehensive analysis of actions underway in the world's megacities to address climate change. This baseline clearly illustrates the notion that "Cities Act." To date, there are 4,734 actions currently in effect and another 1,465 under consideration.
Additional Case Studies
A Water Efficiency System Known as Advanced Pressure Management Reduces Pressure in the City's Water Network, thus Reducing the Amount of Water Leaking through Small Undetected Holes.
The Alliance to Save Energy facilitated a performance contract for the implementation of a water efficiency system known as advanced pressure management on the bulk water supply pipeline into the Sebokeng/Evaton residential area. This area was characterized by excessive water wastage due to leakage. Because of the consumption of large amounts of electricity to pump water to where it is needed, the water saved as a result of implementing this project translates into savings in electricity, which also implies savings in the use of fossil fuels and especially low-grade coal to generate the electricity. This in turn translates into substantial reductions in CO2 emissions.
Rizhao, a city of 3 million people in northern China, is using solar energy to provide energy, heating and lighting. An incredible 99% of Rizhao’s households use solar water heaters, while almost all traffic signals, street lights and park illuminations are powered by photovoltaic solar cells. In total, the city has over a half-million square meters of solar water heating panels, the equivalent of about 0.5 megawatts of electric water heaters.
Helsinki has an environmentally and economically viable system of district heating and cooling that reduces emissions in the city by 40% a year - an average 2.7 Mt CO2 annually. Primary energy saved amounts to 9700 GWh in the Helsinki Energy system. A world-leading heat pump plant is playing an important role by recycling sewage to generate heating for the city - its one of a number of innovative strategies that are cutting fossil fuel use in Helsinki and helping to meet the City’s targets to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by more than a third of the current levels by 2030.
The promotion of electric vehicles is a priority for the Madrid City Council, being considered as a key measure to improve the city air quality and also to reduce CO2 emissions, under the scenario of growing shares of renewables in the energy mix. In 2009, Madrid signed the European cities agreement to reduce the GHG emissions, the ‘Covenant of Majors’, setting a CO2 target of 20% reduction by 2020.
Madrid, through its Air Quality Plan 2011-2015 has set a group of nine measures specifically focused in e-mobility, including the development of a strategic framework for the promotion of electric vehicles, mobility advantages for cleaner vehicles, vehicles tax incentives or voluntary agreements with the private sector.
Besides, the promotion of electric vehicles will figure prominently as a strategic measure in the reviewed city´s Climate and Sustainable Energy Action Plan to achieve the aforementioned CO2 target. The new Climate and Energy Plan for the period 2013-2020 is expected to be approved by the first semester of 2013.
Serpa power plant is a solar energy plant that generates 21 gigawatt-hours of power per year. The electricity it generates it supplied to the national grid which is then used to supply power to 8,000 homes.
In June 2004, King County launched a two-year project to test whether it could generate 1 MW of electricity from a fuel cell power plant powered by digester gas—a byproduct of anaerobic digestion of wastewater solids. The project, located at the 80-acre South Wastewater Treatment Plant southeast of Seattle, was the first commercial megawatt-scale project of its kind. In addition to generating electricity without combustion and the resultant air pollution, the high-temperature (molten carbonate) direct fuel cell unit also delivered a useful heat byproduct.
Dongtan aims to be the world’s first purpose-built eco-city. The city is designed not only to be environmentally sustainable, but also socially, economically and culturally sustainable. Its goal is to be as close to carbon neutral as possible, with city vehicles that produce no carbon or particulate emissions and highly efficient water and energy systems. Dongtan will generate all of its energy needs from renewable sources including bio-fuels, wind farms and photovoltaic panels. A majority of Dongtan's waste will be reused as biofuel for additional energy production and organic waste will be composted. Even human sewage will be composted and processed for energy and composting, greatly reducing or entirely eliminating landfill waste sites.
A city mandate/ordinance requiring that all households meet certain building standards when they are sold, transferred or renovated. This city-wide ordinance with various specific measures has reduced residential energy consumption by over 13 percent, annually reduced CO2 emissions by over 5,000 tons and allowed households to save up to $450 US dollars on their energy bills.
Oxford has produced a compact guide and supporting website to promote sustainable living and help citizens reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Guide is available in hard copy or electronically from the partnership website: www.oxfordismyworld.org Reductions of 1200 tCO2 from the first 300 individuals pledging support to the campaign are expected – 4 tonnes per capita!